El enfoque Una Salud-Un Bienestar, en el abordaje integral de la violencia humano-animal

Autores/as

  • Evelyn Segredo Grupo Académico de Investigación en Antrozoología (GAIA)

Palabras clave:

Una Salud, Un Bienestar, violencia humano animal, políticas públicas.

Resumen

La violencia es un fenómeno de naturaleza compleja, aprendida, y culturalmente establecida, causada por una disfunción en varios niveles de la estructura social. Es la consecuencia de problemáticas humanas transversales y complejas, tal como la pobreza, y constituye una de las expresiones más claras de injusticia y vulneración de los derechos humanos. En la última década se ha desarrollado un cuerpo creciente de evidencia empírica sobre este fenómeno, demostrando que la violencia interpersonal y, el abuso y maltrato hacia los animales, están íntimamente vinculados. Desde la mirada global, la teoría ecológica de la violencia
establece que el ambiente en que se encuentra y vive un individuo constituye un potencial factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de conductas violentas. En este sentido, la cultura juega un rol determinante en la aceptación de manifestaciones explícitamente violentas. A nivel familiar, la disfunción y los vínculos intrafamiliares patológicos constituyen factores predisponentes para futuros comportamientos violentos en las personas. En referencia a las relaciones asimétricas y de ejercicio de poder que caracterizan a la violencia, esta forma de relacionamiento se expresa hacia diferentes poblaciones, ya sean humanas (niños, adultos mayores, hacia las mujeres), como hacia los animales; todas las cuales presentan similares características de vulnerabilidad. Este fenómeno se conoce como ``The Link. Hoy día el desafío se presenta en definir el abuso animal, y en la identificación de los actos violentos.
El abordaje de la violencia humano – animal requiere voluntad política, un motor financiador, y esfuerzos colaborativos interinstitucionales nacionales, regionales e internacionales. El enfoque de Salud Pública define la elaboración de políticas de trabajo en los tres niveles de prevención. En el siguiente informe se pretende revisar las últimas evidencias sobre la temática, brindando al lector, líneas estratégicas, herramientas y reflexiones acerca de los espectros más negativos de interacción humano animal, y la inherente naturaleza compleja que caracteriza a la violencia. 

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Publicado

2020-08-14