Vínculo humano-animal ¿Qué clase de amor es ese?


  • Marcos Díaz Videla Universidad de Flores Laboratorio de Investigación en Antrozoología de Buenos Aires (LIABA)

Palabras clave:

Amor, apego, animal de compañía, mascota, vínculo humano-animal.


Los vínculos entre personas y otros animales se han convertido en área respetada de investigación dentro de la antrozoología. La Asociación Americana de Medicina Veterinaria los define como relaciones dinámicas y mutuamente beneficiosas que incluyen conductas que impactan en el bienestar de los humanos y animales implicados. Con el propósito de describir sus particularidades, se revisan las tres teorías más renombradas sobre la formación de vínculos humano-animal: Teoría del Apoyo Social, Teoría del Apego y Teoría de la Biofilia. Partiendo de un esquema propuesto por Fine (2014; 2019) se desarrollan los constructos conceptualizados como factores que motivan la formación de estos vínculos, proponiendo una redefinición y ampliación de estos factores. De este modo, se plantea un esquema integrado por: (1) antropomorfismo, (2) dependencia/cuidados nutricios, (3) integración en la vida familiar, (4) balance costo-beneficio, y (5) influencia sociocultural. Estos factores se fundamentan a su vez en el apoyo social, el apego y la biofilia. Finalmente, se discute la falta de mención del afecto implicado en la definición de vínculo. Se cuestiona el intento de adecuación conceptual del vínculo humano-animal a una definición de amistad, en tanto el primero cuenta diferencialmente con la asimetría dada por la dependencia y los cuidados, más bien, propios de una relación parental. Así, se desarrolla el concepto de amor familiar, como un afecto desinteresado y leal que permite que vínculos sociales externos a la familia puedan ser incorporados a esta, y se integra esta noción a la definición del vínculo.


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