Relación entre las necesidades psicológicas básicas y el burnout en odontólogos de la Comunidad Valenciana

Palabras clave:

Necesidades psicológicas básicas, burnout, odontólogos, contexto laboral.

Resumen

La teoría de las necesidades psicológicas básicas (Deci y Ryan, 2000) defiende que cuando las personas sienten satisfechas sus necesidades de autonomía, competencia y relación se promueve su bienestar y desarrollo óptimo, mientras que cuando no se satisfacen aparecen consecuencias psicológicas negativas. El objetivo principal del presente estudio fue analizar la relación entre la satisfacción de las necesidades psicológicas básicas en el contexto laboral y la experiencia de burnout en odontólogos. Los participantes del estudio fueron 366 odontólogos (nmujeres = 260; nhombres = 106) entre 24 y 69 años (M = 37.63; DT = 9.69) que cumplimentaron una batería de cuestionarios de manera anónima y en formato on-line. Los resultados muestran que los odontólogos refieren una elevada satisfacción de sus necesidades psicológicas básicas en el contexto laboral, mientras que refieren tener limitadas experiencias de burnout. Los análisis de regresión lineal indicaron que la satisfacción de las necesidades psicológicas básicas de autonomía, competencia y relación predicen negativa y significativamente la experiencia de burnout de los odontólogos, explicando el 28.6% de su varianza. Se concluye la importancia de promover la satisfacción de las necesidades psicológicas básicas de los profesionales del ámbito odontológico para prevenir sus experiencias de burnou.

Citas

Ahola, K. y Hakanen, J. (2007). Job strain, burnout, and depressive symptoms: A prospective study among dentists. Journal of Affective Disorders, 104(1–3), 103–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2007.03.004

Anaya Aguilar, C. (2015). El sindrome de Burnout en los dentistas en España. Universidad de Salamanca.

Babenko, O. (2018). Professional Well-Being of Practicing Physicians: The Roles of Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness. Healthcare, 6(1), 12.

https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare6010012

Baumeister, R. F., y Leary, M. R. (1995). Need To Belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497–529.

Calvo, J. M., Kwatra, J., Yansane, A., Tokede, O., Gorter, R. C., y Kalenderian, E. (2017). Burnout and Work Engagement Among US Dentists. Journal of Patient Safety, 00(00), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1097/PTS.0000000000000355

Choy, H. B. y Wong, M. C. M. (2017). Occupational stress and burnout among Hong Kong dentists. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 23(5), 480–488. https://doi.org/10.12809/hkmj166143

Collin, V., Toon, M., O’selmo, E., Reynolds, L., y Whitehead, P. (2019). A survey of stress, burnout and well-being in UK dentists. British Dental Journal, 226(1), 40–49. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bdj.2019.6

Cordes, C. L., Dougherty, T. W., y Blum, M. (1997). Patterns of burnout among managers and professionals: A comparison of models. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18(6), 685–701. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(199711)18:6<685::AID-JOB817>3.0.CO;2-U

DeCharms, R. C. (1968). Personal causation: The internal affective determinants of behavior. New York: Academic Press.

Deci, E. L. y Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “What” and “Why” of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-Determination of Behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 37–41. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104

Deci, E. L. y Ryan, R. M. (2008). Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian Psychology, 49(3), 182–185. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012801

Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Gagné, M., Leone, D. R., Usunov, J., y Kornazheva, B. P. (2001). Need satisfaction, motivation, and well-being in the work organizations of a former eastern bloc country: A cross-cultural study of self-determination. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(8), 930–942. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167201278002

Delgado Herrada, M. y Garcia Cadena, C. (2015). Validación de la Escala de las Necesidades Psicológicas Básicas en el Contexto Laboral. Tesis Doctoral. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León.

Denton, D. A., Newton, J. T., y Bower, E. J. (2008). Occupational burnout and work engagement: A national survey of dentists in the United Kingdom. British Dental Journal, 205(7), E13. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bdj.2008.654

Desrumaux, P., Lapointe, D., Ntsame Sima, M., Boudrias, J. S., Savoie, A., y Brunet, L. (2015). The impact of job demands, climate, and optimism on well-being and distress at work: What are the mediating effects of basic psychological need satisfaction? Revue Europeenne de Psychologie Appliquee, 65(4), 179–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erap.2015.06.003

Divaris, K., Polychronopoulou, A., Taoufik, K., Katsaros, C., y Eliades, T. (2012). Stress and burnout in postgraduate dental education. European Journal of Dental Education, 16(1), 35–42. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0579.2011.00715.x

Felton, J. S. (1998). Burnout as a clinical entity - its importance in health care workers. Occupational Medicine, 48(4), 237–250. https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/48.4.237

Gil-Monte, P. (2005). El síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo (burnout). Una enfermedad laboral en la sociedad del bienestar. Pirámide.

Goetz, K., Hasse, P., Szecsenyi, J., y Campbell, S. M. (2016). Questionnaire for measuring organisational attributes in dental-care practices : Psychometric properties and test – retest reliability. International Dental Journal, 66, 93–98. https://doi.org/10.1111/idj.12209

Goetz, K., Campbell, S., Broge, B., Brodowski, M., Steinhaeuser, J., Wensing, M., y Szecsenyi, J. (2013). Job satisfaction of practice assistants in general practice in Germany: An observational study. Family Practice, 30(4), 411–417. https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cmt015

Goetz, K., Schuldei, R., y Steinhäuser, J. (2019). Working conditions, job satisfaction and challenging encounters in dentistry: a cross-sectional study. International Dental Journal, 69(1), 44–49. https://doi.org/10.1111/idj.12414

González, L., Castillo, I., García-Merita, M., y Balaguer, I. (2015). Apoyo a la autonomía, satisfacción de las necesidades psicológicas y bienestar: Invarianza de un modelo estructural en futbolistas y bailarines (Autonomy support, psychological needs satisfaction and well-being: Invariance of a structural model in soccer players and dancers). Revista de Psicología Del Deporte, 24(1), 121–129.

Gorter, R. C., Albrecht, G., Hoogstraten, J., y Eijkman, M. A. J. (1998). Work place characteristics, work stress and burnout among Dutch dentists. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 106(6), 999–1005.

Gorter, R. C., Eijkman, M. A. J., y Hoogstraten, J. (2000). Burnout and health among Dutch dentists. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 108(4), 261–267. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0722.2000.108004261.x

Gorter, R. C. y Freeman, R. (2011). Burnout and engagement in relation with job demands and resources among dental staff in Northern Ireland. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 39(1), 87–95. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.2010.00568.x

Hakanen, J. J., Schaufeli, W. B., y Ahola, K. (2008). The Job Demands-Resources model : A three-year cross-lagged study of burnout, depression, commitment, and work engagement. Work and Stress, 22(3), 224–341. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370802379432

Hassan, A., y Al-jubari, I. (2015). Basic psychological needs satisfaction, need frustration and entrepreneurial intention. International Journal of Business and Management, 1(1), 1–11.

Hetland, H., Hetland, J., Andreassen, C. S., Pallesen, S., y Notelaers, G. (2011). Leadership and fulfillment of the three basic psychological needs at work. Career Development International, 16(5), 507–523. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620431111168903

Jowett, G. E., Hill, A. P., Hall, H. K., y Curran, T. (2016). Perfectionism, burnout and engagement in youth sport: The mediating role of basic psychological needs. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 24, 18–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.01.001

Levin, R. (2004). Is the dentist an entrepreneur? Yes and no. Journal of the American Dental Association, 135(12), 1733–1734. https://doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.2004.0128

Li, C., Wang, C. K. J., Pyun, D. Y., y Kee, Y. H. (2013). Burnout and its relations with basic psychological needs and motivation among athletes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14(5), 692–700. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.04.009

Luzzi, L. y Spencer, A. (2011). Job satisfaction of the oral health labour force in Australia. Australian Dental Journal, 56(1), 23–32. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1834-7819.2010.01282.x

Maslach, C. y Jackson, S. E. (1986). The measurement of experienced Burnout.

Maslach, C., Jackson, S., y Leiter, M. (1986). Malasch Burnout Inventory (3rd edition). In Evaluating Stress: A Book of Resources, Volume 1 (pp. 191–218). https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030020205

Moore, R. y Brødsgaard, I. (2001). Dentists’ perceived stress and its relation to perceptions about anxious patients. Community Dentistry y Oral Epidemiology, 29(1), 73–80. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0528.2001.029001073.x

Ne Gagné, M. y Deci, E. L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 331–362. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.322

Ordell, S., Söderfeldt, B., Hjalmers, K., Berthelsen, H., y Bergström, K. (2013).

Organization and overall job satisfaction among publicly employed, salaried dentists in Sweden and Denmark. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 71(6), 1443–1452. https://doi.org/10.3109/00016357.2013.767933

Ortega Ruiz, C. y Lopez Rios, F. (2004). El burnout o síndrome de estar quemado en los profesionales sanitarios: Revisión y perspectivas. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 4(1), 137–160.

Puriene, A, Aleksejuniene, J., Petrauskiene, J., Balciuniene, I., y Janulyte, V. (2008). Self-perceived Mental Health and Job Satisfaction among Lithuanian Dentists. Industrial Health, 46(3), 247–252. https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.46.247

Reyes-Torres, M., Rios-Santos, J. V., Lopez-Jimenez, A., Herrero-Climent, M., y Bullon, P. (2012). Job satisfaction and depression in the Spanish Society of Periodontology and Research (SEPA) members, and their relation to the burnout syndrome. Creation of a structural model. Medicina Oral, Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal, 17(5). https://doi.org/10.4317/medoral.17478

Rios-Santos, J., Reyes-Torres, M., Lopez-Jimenez, A., Morillo-Velazquez, J. M., y Bullón, P. (2010). Burnout and depression among Spanish periodontology practitioners. Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal, 15(5), 813–819. https://doi.org/10.4317/medoral.15.e813

Roth, S. F., Heo, G., Varnhagen, C., Glover, K. E., y Major, P. W. (2003). Job satisfaction among Canadian orthodontists. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 123(6), 695–700. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0889-5406(03)00200-2

Ryan, R. M., Patrick, H., Deci, E. L., y Williams, G. C. (2008). Facilitating health behaviour change and its maintenance: Interventions based on Self- Determination Theory. The European Health Psychologist, 10(1), 2–6.

Salazar, F. B. C., Sipiyaruk, K., White, S., y Gallagher, J. E. (2019). Key determinants of health and wellbeing of dentists within the UK: A rapid review of over two decades of research. British Dental Journal, 227(2), 127–136. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41415-019-0485-2

Schultz, P. P., Ryan, R. M., Niemiec, C. P., Legate, N., y Williams, G. C. (2015). Mindfulness, work climate, and psychological need satisfaction in employee well-being. Mindfulness, 6(5), 971–985. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-014-0338-7

Seisdedos, N. (1997). MBI. Inventario de “Burnout” de Maslach: Manual. Madrid: TEA.

Singh, P., Aulak, D. S., Mangat, S. S., y Aulak, M. S. (2016). Systematic review: Factors contributing to burnout in dentistry. Occupational Medicine, 66(1), 27–31. https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqv119

Sobrequés, J., Cebrià, J., Segura, J., Rodríguez, C., García, M., y Juncosa, S. (2003). La satisfacción laboral y el desgaste profesional de los médicos de atención primaria. Atención Primaria, 31(4), 227–233. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0212-6567(03)79164-1

Sulea, C., van Beek, I., Sarbescu, P., Virga, D., y Schaufeli, W. B. (2015). Engagement, boredom, and burnout among students: Basic need satisfaction matters more than personality traits. Learning and Individual Differences, 42(4), 132–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2015.08.018

Te Brake, H., Gorter, R., Hoogstraten, J., y Eijkman, M. (2001). Burnout intervention among Dutch dentists: Long-term effects. European Journal of Oral Science, 109, 380–387.

Te Brake, J. H. M., Bouman, A. M., Gorter, R. C., Hoogstraten, J., y Eijkman, M. A. J. (2008). Using the Maslach Burnout Inventory among dentists: Burnout measurement and trends. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 36(1), 69–75. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.2007.00372.x

Van den Broeck, A., Ferris, D. L., Chang, C. H., y Rosen, C. C. (2016). A Review of Self-Determination Theory’s Basic Psychological Needs at Work. Journal of Management, 42(5), 1195–1229. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206316632058

Van Den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., De Witte, H., y Lens, W. (2008). Explaining the relationships between job characteristics, burnout, and engagement: The role of basic psychological need satisfaction. Work and Stress, 22(3), 277–294. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370802393672

Van der Burgt, S. M. E., Kusurkar, R. A., Wilschut, J. A., Tjin A Tsoi, S. L. N. M., Croiset, G., y Peerdeman, S. M. (2019). Medical specialists’ basic psychological needs, and motivation for work and lifelong learning: A two-step factor score path analysis. BMC Medical Education, 19(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-019-1754-0

White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66(5), 297–333.

Publicado

2020-04-30

Número

Sección

Artículos